H. T. Hoang, M. Mertens, P. Wessig, F. Sellrie, J. A. Schenk, M. U. Kumke
Antibody Binding at the Liposome-Water Interface: A FRET Investigation toward a Liposome-Based Assay
ACS Omega 2018, 3, 18109-18116
DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b03016
Different signal amplification strategies to improve the detection sensitivity of immunoassays have been applied which utilize enzymatic reactions, nanomaterials, or liposomes. The latter are very attractive materials for signal amplification because liposomes can be loaded with a large amount of signaling molecules, leading to a high sensitivity. In addition, liposomes can be used as a cell-like "bioscaffold" to directly test recognition schemes aiming at cell-related processes. This study demonstrates an easy and fast approach to link the novel hydrophobic optical probe based on [1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f ]-[1,3]benzodioxole (DBD dye mm239) with tunable optical properties to hydrophilic recognition elements (e.g., antibodies) using liposomes for signal amplification and as carrier of the hydrophobic dye. The fluorescence properties of mm239 (e.g., long fluorescence lifetime, large Stokes shift, high photostability, and high quantum yield), its high hydrophobicity for efficient anchoring in liposomes, and a maleimide bioreactive group were applied in a unique combination to build a concept for the coupling of antibodies or other protein markers to liposomes (coupling to membranes can be envisaged). The concept further allowed us to avoid multiple dye labeling of the antibody. Here, anti-TAMRA-antibody (DC7-Ab) was attached to the liposomes. In proof-of-concept, steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence measurements (e.g., fluorescence depolarization) in combination with single molecule detection (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) were used to analyze the binding interaction between DC7-Ab and liposomes as well as the binding of the antigen rhodamine 6G (R6G) to the antibody. Here, the Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between mm239 and R6G was monitored. In addition to ensemble FRET data, single-molecule FRET (PIE-FRET) experiments using pulsed interleaved excitation were used to characterize in detail the binding on a single-molecule level to avoid averaging out effects.
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