T. Schwarze, J. Riemer, H. Müller, L. John, H.-J. Holdt, P. Wessig
Na+ Selective Fluorescent Tools Based on Fluorescence Intensity Enhancements, Lifetime Changes, and on a Ratiometric Response
Chemistry Eur. J. 2019, 25, 12412 – 12422
DOI: 10.1002/chem.201902536
Over the years, we developed highly selective fluorescent probes for K+ in water, which show K+-induced fluorescence intensity enhancements, lifetime changes, or a ratiometric behavior at two emission wavelengths (cf. Scheme 1, K1K4). In this paper, we introduce selective fluorescent probes for Na+ in water, which also show Na+ induced signal changes, which are analyzed by diverse fluorescence techniques. Initially, we synthesized the fluorescent\r\nprobes 2, 4, 5, 6 and 10 for a fluorescence analysis by intensity enhancements at one wavelength by varying the Na+ responsive ionophore unit and the fluorophore moiety to adjust different Kd values for an intra- or extracellular Na+ analysis. Thus, we found that 2, 4 and 5 are Na+ selective fluorescent tools, which are able to measure physiologically important Na+ levels at wavelengths higher than 500 nm. Secondly, we developed the fluorescent probes 7 and 8 to analyze precise Na+ levels by fluorescence lifetime changes.\r\nHerein, only 8 (Kd=106 mM) is a capable fluorescent tool to measure Na+ levels in blood samples by lifetime changes. Finally, the fluorescent probe 9 was designed to show a Na+\r\ninduced ratiometric fluorescence behavior at two emission wavelengths. As desired, 9 (Kd=78 mM) showed a ratiometric fluorescence response towards Na+ ions and is a suitable tool to measure physiologically relevant Na+ levels by the intensity change of two emission wavelengths at 404 nm and 492 nm.
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