B. Schmidt, F. Wolf, C. Ehlert
Systematic Investigation into the Matsuda-Heck Reaction of α-Methylene Lactones: How Conformational Constraints Direct the β-H-Elimination Step
J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 11235-11249
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b02207
α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone and α-methylene-δ-valerolactone undergo Pd-catalyzed Matsuda-Heck couplings with arene diazonium salts to α-benzyl butenolides or pentenolides, respectively, or to α-benzylidene lactones. The observed regioselectivity is strongly ring size dependent, with six-membered rings giving exclusively α-benzyl pentenolides, whereas the five-membered α-methylene lactone reacts to mixtures of regioisomers with a high proportion of (E)-α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactones. DFT calculations suggest that the reasons for these differences are not thermodynamic but kinetic in nature. The relative energies of the conformers of the Pd σ-complexes resulting from insertion into the Pd-aryl bond were correlated with the dihedral angles between Pd and endo-β-H. This correlation revealed that in the case of the six-membered lactone an energetically favorable conformer adopts a nearly synperiplanar Pd/endo-β-H arrangement, whereas for the analogous Pd σ-complex of the five-membered lactone the smallest Pd/endo-β-H dihedral angle is observed for a conformer with a comparatively high potential energy. The optimized conditions for Matsuda-Heck arylations of exo-methylene lactones were eventually applied to the synthesis of the natural product anemarcoumarin A.
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